What is the difference between La Nina and El Nino?

What is the difference between La Nina and El Nino?

El Niño events are associated with a warming of the central and eastern tropical Pacific, while La Niña events are the reverse, with a sustained cooling of these same areas. These changes in the Pacific Ocean and its overlying atmosphere occur in a cycle known as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

What country is most affected by El Nino?

The worst-affected regions are parts of southern Africa, the Sahel, western Africa, Australia, western United States and parts of South America, as the map below shows. In El Niño years, 10 per cent of the globe sees higher than normal damages, while 19 per cent sees lower than normal.

What are 2 things that happen during El Nino?

During an El Niño, the trade winds weaken in the central and western Pacific. Surface water temperatures off South America warm up, because there is less upwelling of the cold water from below to cool the surface. The clouds and rainstorms associated with warm ocean waters also shift toward the east.

What can be negatively impacted by El Nino in South America?

For example, hurricanes in the Atlantic are believed to be suppressed, and semi-arid areas welcome “flooding” that irrigates crops and replenishes water reservoirs. But the impact on agriculture, fisheries and food security is often disastrous.

How does El Niño affect climate?

El Nino causes the Pacific jet stream to move south and spread further east. During winter, this leads to wetter conditions than usual in the Southern U.S. and warmer and drier conditions in the North. El Nino also has a strong effect on marine life off the Pacific coast.

What is El Nino weather pattern?

The Short Answer: El Niño is a weather pattern that occurs in the Pacific Ocean. During this time, unusual winds cause warm surface water from the equator to move east, toward Central and South America. When this happens, the cooler water underneath rises up toward the surface of the ocean near South America.

What are the first signs of El Niño?

The first signs of an El Niño are:

  • Rise in surface pressure over the Indian Ocean, Indonesia and Australia;
  • Fall in air pressure over Tahiti and the rest of the central and eastern Pacific Ocean;
  • Trade winds in the south Pacific weaken or head east;

What is El Nino effect?

The term El Niño (Spanish for ‘the Christ Child’) refers to a warming of the ocean surface (or above-average sea surface temperatures) in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. El Niño events can disrupt normal weather patterns in the United States and globally.

What is El Nino simple definition?

El Niño is a climate pattern that describes the unusual warming of surface waters in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. El Nino is the “warm phase” of a larger phenomenon called the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). El Niño was recognized by fishers off the coast of Peru as the appearance of unusually warm water.

Why are El Niño events more frequent than La Niña?

As the event develops, the warmed waters cause the winds to weaken even further, which can cause the waters to warm even more. El Niño is often (but not always) followed by La Niña the following year, particularly if the El Niño is strong. Stronger winds push surface water into the western Pacific.

What is the main cause of El Nino?

An El Niño condition occurs when surface water in the equatorial Pacific becomes warmer than average and east winds blow weaker than normal. The opposite condition is called La Niña. During this phase of ENSO, the water is cooler than normal and the east winds are stronger. El Niños typically occur every 3 to 5 years.

What are the characteristics of El Nino?

During El Niño, the surface winds across the entire tropical Pacific are weaker than usual. Ocean temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean are warmer than average, and rainfall is below average over Indonesia and above average over the central or eastern Pacific.

What is El Nino and La Nina and what are the characteristics of each?

El Niño is characterized by a positive ONI greater than or equal to +0.5°C. La Niña is characterized by a negative ONI less than or equal to -0.5°C. Whenever the ONI is between +0.5 and -0.5, conditions are referred to as ENSO-neutral.

How does El Nino affect trade winds?

During an El Niño event, the easterly trade winds converging across the equatorial Pacific weaken. This in turn slows the ocean current that draws surface water away from the western coast of South America and reduces the upwelling of cold, nutrient–rich water from the deeper ocean, flattening out the thermocline.

What is the strength and direction of the trade winds during La Nina conditions?

La Niña Conditions There are occasions when the trade winds that blow west across the tropical Pacific are stronger than normal. This leads to increased upwelling off South America and hence the lower than normal sea surface temperatures. The prevailing rain pattern also shifts farther west than normal.

How does El Nino affect the transmission of diseases?

A growing number of studies have shown that the El Niño cycle is associated with changes in the risk of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria and dengue and other arboviruses. Malaria transmission is particularly sensitive to climate variations.

How does El Nino affect human health?

El Niño conditions can cause a wide range of health problems, including disease outbreaks, malnutrition, heat stress, and respiratory diseases. Above-average rainfall caused by El Niño can also cause floods and increase diseases spread by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya and the Zika virus.

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