Table of Contents
What does wilderness designation mean?
National Wilderness Preservation System
What was the purpose of the Wilderness Act of 1964?
Mindful of our “increasing population, accompanied by expanding settlement and growing mechanization,” Congress passed the 1964 Wilderness Act in order to preserve and protect certain lands “in their natural condition” and thus “secure for present and future generations the benefits of wilderness.” 11 U.S.C. § 1131(a).
What does wilderness area mean?
An area of wilderness is further defined to mean in this Act an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions and which (1) generally appears to have been …
What is wilderness and why is it important?
Wilderness areas are important because they provide long-term protection to the last of our nation’s wild landscapes — places that possess spectacular beauty, offer outstanding solitude, support native plants and animals, protect valuable water resources, shelter ancient cultural artifacts, provide opportunities for …
Why is the wilderness under threat?
Because of human population growth and development, many wilderness areas are threatened. The effects of human interaction with wilderness areas can be direct, such as a campfire or poaching. The effects can also be indirect, such as human contribution to climate change.
Is mining allowed in wilderness areas?
Is mining allowable within a designated wilderness area? Yes. For all mining activities on National Forest lands, federal law dictates that the Forest Service is responsible for the surface resources.
Would it be better to mine in a wilderness area or a developed area?
It would be better to mine in a wilderness area rather than a developed area. DevelopedPros: Mining in developed areas is good because it would bring more people to the city or area, which brings revenue.
Why does restoration of land make mining more expensive?
The legislation requiring land to be restored after mining makes mining more expensive by imposing certain rules and regulations to the mining company asking it to take responsibility of their land degradation and reclaim the land to its initial form.
What environmental costs are associated with mining?
Mining is the extraction of minerals and other geological materials of economic value from deposits on the Earth. Mining adversely affects the environment by inducing loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, and contamination of surface water, groundwater, and soil. Mining can also trigger the formation of sinkholes.
What does the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 say?
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) prohibits surface coal mining within the boundaries of any unit of the National Park System. SMCRA also provides the NPS with authority over permitting decisions regarding external surface coal mining.
How would a mining company try to restore the land back to its original state after extraction of the ore was completed?
A mining company can try to restore the land back to its original state after completing the extraction of ore by cleaning up the area and paying for any damages that may have occurred during the process.
Can mined land be returned to a better than original condition?
Across the US, mine reclamation – even when approved by state regulators – rarely returns land to pre-mining levels of wilderness or productivity, according to a decade of government reports compiled by Climate Home News.
How is mining affecting the environment?
Across the world, mining contributes to erosion, sinkholes, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, significant use of water resources, dammed rivers and ponded waters, wastewater disposal issues, acid mine drainage and contamination of soil, ground and surface water, all of which can lead to health issues in local …
How much does it cost to reclaim land after mining 2020?
According to OSMRE, the states and tribes have estimated total unfunded costs for the reclamation of eligible sites of approximately $10.7 billion to date.
How long does it take for the environment to recover after a mine is closed?
The bond is not released to the operator until after the state or federal regulatory office has concluded that the reclamation is successful, which could be over 10 years after the reclamation process has been completed.
What is the reclaim act?
The RECLAIM Act of 2021 would accelerate the release of $1 billion from the remaining, unappropriated balance in the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund to revitalize coal communities impacted by abandoned mine lands and the recent decrease in coal mining.
What can states do to reclaim abandoned mines?
Coal mine sites abandoned before 1977 may be reclaimed under the provisions of Title IV of SMCRA. Taxes on currently mined coal are redistributed to states and Indian tribes for the reclamation of abandoned coal mines and associated waters.
How does Reclamation protect the environment around a mine?
The goal of reclamation is to conserve and enhance biodiversity, protect the environment, and turn lands where mining has occurred over to new and productive uses. This work can include establishing healthy wildlife areas and wetlands, or preparing for future economic or recreational uses.
How do I reclaim land after mining?
Reclamation includes the following steps: contouring of land; placement of topsoil or an approved substitute on the graded area; reseeding with native vegetation, crops and/or trees; and years of careful monitoring to assure success.
What happens to a mine when it is no longer productive?
The mine closure process Once production on a mine stops, a small labour force remains behind to shut down and decommission the site. This involves removing completely the machinery that can be, or needs to be, removed. Often this is taken to another site or sold.
What happens in the winding house of a mine?
Part 1: The winch or hoist is in a winding house. This part of the system is used to wind or unwind the steel cable. The mine cage and the skips are lowered into the mine when a steel cable unwinds from the winch. The mine cage and skips are raised when the steel cable winds up again.
What happens when a mine is exhausted?
Open-pit mines are typically enlarged until either the mineral resource is exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes.
Why do miners need ventilation?
A mine ventilation system must prevent the release of dust into the GBA, and remove air contaminated with dust from the areas where men and machinery are traveling or working. Wherever rock is loaded and transported, both on surface and U/G, it is normally kept wet to suppress dust.
Are underground mines hot or cold?
Temperature levels in underground mines range from extremity-numbing cold to such heat that dehydration can be caused in a matter of minutes by profuse sweating. Mines in Mongolia have to battle temperatures of -40 degrees Celsius while mines in Western Australia often reach into the 50s.
What ventilation means?
Ventilation: The exchange of air between the lungs and the atmosphere so that oxygen can be exchanged for carbon dioxide in the alveoli (the tiny air sacs in the lungs).
What is Ascensional ventilation?
A mine ventilation system in which the fresh intake air flows down to the bottom end of the workings and then ascends along the faces to the main return.