What did electric trains and trolleys mostly replaced at the beginning of the 1900s?
Beginning about 1900, most cable trackage was replaced by electric cars; but the Seattle lines lasted until the 1930s, and a portion of the San Francisco system continued in operation in the 21st century. In the United States, electric streetcars replaced horse-drawn cars at a particularly rapid rate from 1902 to 1917.
Which city installed the first electric streetcar system?
Which city has the world’s longest tram system?
Melbourne tram network
What is the largest tram network in the world?
Melbourne’s tram network, with 250 kilometers of track (155 miles), is already the largest in the world.
How much electricity does a tram use?
Using a ‘low’ average occupancy of 20 passengers per tram as estimated for Melbourne in the 1980s, energy use is around 0.6MJ per pkm, around half that for buses and less than 20 per cent that for cars. Well-used tram systems have average occupancies of around 80 per tram, and the figures reduce accordingly.
Where do we find trams?
Trams in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), West Bengal are operated by the Calcutta Tramways Company (CTC). It is the only operating tram network in India and the oldest operating electric tram in Asia, running since 1902.
What voltage do Trams run on?
DC voltages between 600 V and 800 V are used by most tramways (streetcars), trolleybus networks and underground (subway) systems.
How do trams get power?
Today, most trams use electrical power, usually fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line; older systems may use a trolley pole or a bow collector. Some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems.
What fuel do trams use?
‘ Trams are powered by electricity with an overhead wire and earth return through the steel rails, there are no tail-pipe emissions and if the tram is powered by 100% renewable electricity, then there are zero carbon emissions. Trams are often criticised for their extraordinary cost.
Are trams powered by gravity?
Explanation: Trams are powered by electricity and therefore don’t emit exhaust fumes.
Can trams stop for cars?
You MUST NOT park your vehicle where it would get in the way of trams or where it would force other drivers to do so. Do not stop on any part of a tram track, except in a designated bay where this has been provided alongside and clear of the track. Remember that a tram cannot steer round an obstruction.
What will reduce fuel consumption?
Explanation: Harsh braking, frequent gear changes and harsh acceleration increase fuel consumption. An engine uses less fuel when travelling at a constant low speed. Easing off the accelerator and timing your approach at junctions, for example, can reduce the fuel consumption of your vehicle.
What is a good fuel consumption per 100km?
litres per 100km
What is fuel consumption at its highest?
Explanation: Accelerating uses a lot of fuel, so always try to use the accelerator smoothly. Taking your foot off the accelerator allows the momentum of the car to take you forward, especially when going downhill.
How much more fuel will you use at 70mph than 50mph?
The higher the engine revs, the more fuel you’ll use. Using the same gear, and covering the same distance, a vehicle travelling at 70 mph will use up to 30% more fuel than it would at 50 mph.
How accurate are fuel consumption figures?
The company’s tests have found that the average car’s fuel economy is 25% lower than official numbers, with some vehicles as much as 40% below the laboratory figure.
What does urban fuel consumption mean?
Urban MPG is the number of miles a vehicle can do on a single imperial gallon of fuel in a city driving environment. Extra-urban MPG measures a vehicle’s efficiency on B-road/A-road/motorway driving environments. Find out more and how you can improve your fuel economy in our handy guide.
What does it mean extra urban?
Urban is supposed to represent city driving, Extra-Urban represents country roads and motorways, and Combined represents an overall figure. But most motorists will tell you that they are unable to get anywhere near their car’s official fuel economy figures, and it usually drives them mad.
How do you calculate fuel consumption?
Calculating consumption and range Simply note down the distance travelled since the last top-up and then take a note of how much fuel it consumed to travel that distance, then divide the litres used by the kilometres travelled and multiply by 100 to calculate consumption in litres/100km.
What is urban driving?
Urban or city driving involves a variety of complex driving situations. Spaces are limited; you deal with lots of cars, bicyclists, pedestrians, buses and one-way streets.
What are the three main types of driving environments?
These road types can be organized into three categories.
- Local roads. This covers urban, suburban, residential and rural roads.
- Arterials. These busier thoroughfares include county roads, avenues and highways.
- Limited access highways.
What makes urban driving difficult?
What are the 2 main factors that make driving difficult in the city? Traffic is denser in urban areas than it is in rural areas. City traffic hazards are closer to you than they are in to rural areas. Those hazards quickly block your path.